List of Different Doctors and What They Do: A Comprehensive Guide

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Are you familiar with the various types of doctors and their specialties? Understanding the roles and expertise of different medical professionals is crucial when seeking appropriate healthcare. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive list of different doctors and what they do. By the end, you’ll have a better understanding of various medical professions, enabling you to make informed decisions about your healthcare needs.

Understanding Different Types of Doctors

Medical professions encompass a wide range of specialties, each focusing on specific aspects of healthcare. Let’s delve into the world of different doctors and explore their unique roles and responsibilities.

List of Different Doctors and What They Do

General Practitioner (GP)

General Practitioners, commonly known as GPs, are primary care physicians who provide initial medical care and ongoing management of various health conditions. They serve as the first point of contact for patients, diagnosing common illnesses, and referring patients to specialists when necessary.


Cardiologists specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases related to the cardiovascular system, such as heart conditions, high blood pressure, and heart rhythm abnormalities. They perform tests like electrocardiograms and echocardiograms to assess heart health and prescribe appropriate treatments.


Dermatologists specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions related to the skin, hair, and nails. From acne and eczema to skin cancer, they address a wide range of dermatological issues. Dermatologists also perform cosmetic procedures like Botox injections and chemical peels to enhance the appearance of the skin.


Gynecologists provide medical care specifically for women, focusing on reproductive health. They offer routine examinations, manage contraception, and diagnose and treat conditions such as menstrual disorders, infertility, and gynecological cancers. Gynecologists also provide prenatal care and perform deliveries.

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Neurologists specialize in disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. They diagnose and treat conditions like epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Neurologists use various tests, such as MRI scans and EEGs, to evaluate brain function and develop treatment plans.


Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in mental health. They diagnose and treat mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. Psychiatrists use a combination of therapy and medication to manage and improve their patients’ mental well-being.

Orthopedic Surgeon

Orthopedic Surgeons focus on the musculoskeletal system, treating conditions related to bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. They perform surgeries like joint replacements, fracture repairs, and arthroscopic procedures. Orthopedic Surgeons also provide non-surgical treatments, such as physical therapy and medication.


Ophthalmologists specialize in eye care, diagnosing and treating conditions affecting vision and eye health. They perform eye exams, prescribe glasses or contact lenses, and manage diseases like cataracts, glaucoma, and macular degeneration. Ophthalmologists also perform eye surgeries, including LASIK and cataract removal.


Pediatricians are doctors who specialize in providing medical care to infants, children, and adolescents. They monitor growth and development, administer vaccinations, and diagnose and treat childhood illnesses and injuries. Pediatricians play a crucial role in ensuring the overall health and well-being of children.


Radiologists are specialists who interpret medical images such as x-rays, CT scans, MRIs, and ultrasounds. They work closely with other doctors to provide accurate diagnoses based on imaging results. Radiologists play a vital role in detecting and monitoring various diseases and conditions.

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Urologists specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions related to the urinary tract and male reproductive system. They address issues such as urinary incontinence, kidney stones, and prostate problems. Urologists also perform surgeries like kidney transplants and vasectomies.


Oncologists are doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. They use various treatments, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy, to manage and eradicate cancer cells. Oncologists work closely with other specialists to provide comprehensive cancer care.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

How do I choose the right doctor for my needs?

Choosing the right doctor depends on your specific needs. Consider factors such as their area of expertise, experience, location, and recommendations from trusted sources. It’s important to find a doctor who can address your concerns and provide the quality of care you deserve.

What is the difference between a specialist and a general practitioner?

While general practitioners provide primary care for a wide range of health issues, specialists have additional training and expertise in specific areas. Specialists focus on a particular field, allowing them to provide in-depth knowledge and specialized care for more complex conditions.

Can I see a specialist without a referral?

In most cases, seeing a specialist requires a referral from a general practitioner or another healthcare professional. This ensures that you receive appropriate care and that your medical history is shared with the specialist, enabling them to make informed decisions about your treatment.

How long does it take to become a doctor in a specific field?

The length of time to become a doctor varies depending on the specialization. Generally, it takes around 10-15 years of education and training after high school to become a specialized doctor. This includes obtaining a medical degree, completing a residency program, and potentially pursuing further fellowship training.

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Are there any alternative medical professions apart from those mentioned?

Yes, apart from the doctors listed above, there are numerous other medical professions. These include dentists, chiropractors, optometrists, physical therapists, and more. Each profession has its unique role in providing specialized care for different aspects of health and wellness.


Understanding the roles and expertise of different doctors is essential for receiving appropriate medical care. From general practitioners to specialized doctors like cardiologists, dermatologists, and neurologists, each medical professional plays a vital role in maintaining our health. By knowing what each doctor does, you can make informed decisions about your healthcare needs and ensure that you receive the best possible care for your specific condition.

Note: This article is for informational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice. Always consult with a qualified healthcare professional for personalized guidance and treatment.

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